Coffee plants primarily grow in relatively cool climates in the region between the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn. The optimum temperature is between 59-75F year round. They are primarily cultivated in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India and Africa. There is a direct relationship between extremes of day and nighttime terperatures and coffee quality. Experimental evidence has indicated that a large gap between day and nighttime temperatures is beneficial to the flavor of fruits. Since a coffee cherry is fruit and the seed is in contact with the fruit, these benefits will be passed onto the seeds and therefore into the cups.
Two species are cultivated, Arabica and Robusta. Robusta plants ususally grown between 15 and 20 feet compared to the 8 to 15 feet height of Arabica ones. Robusta has a higher yield and is less sensitive to insects. Robusta is much more tolerant to warm conditions than Arabica. When the coffee tree gets older, it branches less and bears more leaves and fruit. From the price perspective, green Robusta beans is about half the price of green Arabica beans. Robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor. Robusta strains also contain about 40-50% more caffeine than Arabica. Robusta beans consist of 1.7-4% caffeine and Arabica beans contain 0.8-1.4% caffeine. Most instant coffee is made from Robusta. About 75% of the world's coffee production is Arabica, around 25% being Robusta. Brazil is the most significant Arabica producer and Vietnam produces the most Robusta.
The native origin of coffee has been discovered in Ethiopia in 8th Century. "Coffee" first entered English language in 1582 via the Dutch"Koffie", borrowed from the Turkish "Kahve", in turn taken from the Arabic "qahwah". The original meaning of "qahwah" referred to a type of wine. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is in the middle of 15th century, in Yemen. Coffee beans were exported to Yemen from Ethiopia. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate coffee beans. When coffee reached the Arabian penisula, it began a journey bringing these beans across the world. By the 16th century, coffee was known in the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, Egypt, Horn of Africa, and Northern Africa. European travelers to the Near East brought back stories of an unusal dark beverage. Coffee was becoming popular across the continent by the 17th century. Coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany and Netherland. It began to replace the common breakfast drink beverages of the time - beer and wine.
Coffee is the second-most traded commodity in the whole world, second only to crude oil. Over 2.25 billion cups of coffee are consumed in the world every day. Tens of millions of small producers in developing countries make their living growing coffee. The coffee industry currently has a commodity chain that involves producers, middlemen exporters, importers, roasters, and retailers before reaching the consumers. Over 90% of coffee production takes place in developing countries - mostly South America, while consumption happens mainly in the industrialized economies.
|September, 1st Saturday||Germany|
|September 12||Costa Rica|
|September 29||New Zealand|
|September 29||South Africa|
|September 29||United States|
|October 1||Sri Lanka|
|10||Bosinia and Herzegovina|
|FLAVOR||GRIND||BREW TIME||WATER TEMPERATURE|
マカロン ラテ латте
Macarrão café com leite
라떼 마카롱 μακαρόν
лате френски макарон